Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that involves removal of the retroperitoneal lymph nodes in testicular cancer patients.
Testicles are formed in the abdomen and move down (descend) to settle in the scrotum (sac beneath the penis). Undescended testicles can become damaged and lead to male infertility later in life.
Laparoscopic varicocelectomy is a surgical procedure indicated for the treatment of infertility in men. Varicocele, enlargement of the veins in the scrotum, is the most common cause of infertility in men.