The bladder is a hollow, muscular, elastic organ that stores urine, excreted by the kidney, before it is evacuated from the body by means of urination. Bladder cancer is a cancer affecting the tissues of the urinary bladder and is the second most common urologic cancer; after prostate cancer. It is malignant and can spread to other nearby organs, necessitating the need for partial or complete surgical removal of the bladder, which is the standard gold treatment approach for this cancer. Depending on the extent of spread, nearby lymph nodes and organs may also be removed along with the cancerous part of the bladder. In men, this may include removal of prostate, seminal vesicles and part of the vas deferens, while in women it may include the removal of cervix, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes and part of the vagina.