The kidneys filter blood of waste, which is passed out of the body as urine through the urinary system. Stone disease is characterized by the formation of stones in the kidneys due to the concentration of certain minerals present in urine. Although common in adults, kidney stones are very rare in children. They may form due to structural abnormalities in the urinary system, genetic factors, dehydration, urinary tract infection or metabolic disorders.
Kidney stones start off as a grain of sand and usually pass in the urine without causing any symptoms. However, as they grow larger, they can get stuck in the kidneys, ureters (tubes exiting the kidney) or bladder (temporary storage of urine) and cause symptoms including pain during urination, blood in the urine, and severe pain in the back or lower abdomen. To diagnose kidney stones, your child’s doctor orders urine and blood tests, and an ultrasound or CT scan.
Treatment of stone disease is based on the size of the stones. Your child’s doctor may recommend consuming extra fluids to help small stones pass through the urine. Pain medications are prescribed to relieve pain and discomfort. If the sizes of the stones are large and blocking the urinary tract, shock wave lithotripsy is recommended, which uses shock waves to break the stones down so that they can be easily excreted through urine. Sometimes surgery may be performed under general anesthesia to remove the large stones, where a scope (thin tube with a viewing device) is inserted through the ureters or directly into the kidney through an incision in your child’s back.
Treatment may be followed up with drinking lots of water to dilute the urine, medications and dietary changes to prevent the recurrence of stone formation.
NMC UroCare provides specialized and experienced urologists and the best quality treatments. For further information regarding Stone Disease please contact NMC UroCare.